Thursday, July 29, 2010

Carpet Means Comfort: Werner Braun

Carpet means comfort by Werner Braun
Werner Braun: Carpet Means Comfort

Werner Braun in "Carpet means comfort" describes how carpet saves energy, adds warmth and comfort to homes and offices.

In his new role as newspaper columnist with the Dalton Daily-Citizen, Carpet and Rug Institute President Werner Braun talks about carpet’s warmth in a home. The article, published June 11, 2010, is titled "Carpet means comfort."

Not only does carpet and pad provide insulation that keeps energy in the form of heat from escaping through the floor, it also makes the air closer to the floor feel warmer. Werner begins his article with a reference to something we all hate: when warm feet hit a cold floor on an icy morning.

“Put yourself in your bed during the coldest morning you remember, and how warm you felt all snuggled under the covers. Not wanting to move.

If you did start any of your mornings on a cold floor this past winter, then you understand how nice it is to step onto carpet.”

Braun is referring to research conducted over the past few years at the Georgia Institute of Technology, as well as independent scientific studies, that demonstrate how carpet increases the R-value, or insulation level, of the carpeted area. The R-value (thermal resistance) measures how much a material resists the movement of heat through a ceiling, wall, or floor in a building. The higher the number, the more effective the insulation.

Carpet that is installed with pad underneath significantly increases R-value compared to other flooring materials, and that can save you money in lower utility bills.

Also, Dr. Alan Hedge, a professor of Design and Environmental Analysis at Cornell University, points out another way carpet makes a room warmer. “Carpet feels warmer to the touch than other floor coverings because the air at room temperature is trapped by the carpet fibers, and that pad of air acts as an insulator,” he says.

This sense of hominess and warmth is one reason why carpet is being used more and more in nursing homes and residential treatment facilities, Braun says. And if you are hoping to save energy this winter, the summer is a good time to shop for new carpet.

“Even though a cold floor may feel great to your feet as the humidity settles in, take advantage of these summer months to evaluate the carpet warmth and comfort of your home or business. Is there a new room you want to carpet or re-carpet before winter arrives? If so, then don’t hesitate to ask your local carpet experts about what kind of carpet would complement your family or business lifestyle. But more importantly, don’t start out your mornings this winter by dreading putting your feet on the ground.”

Thanks, Werner!


PS: If you haven't already, you might also consider reading Cash For Caulkers, Carpet For Energy-Saving: Homeowners Benefit.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Carpet in Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House

Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House, carpeted living room

Carpet History Then and Now: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Robie House

In Chicago last month for the NeoCon World’s Trade Fair,  I did something I have always wanted to do – tour a house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright

Every year, NeoCon organizes tours of the Chicago area, which is famous for its interesting blend of architectural styles, and for being the city where several famous architects established themselves.  Most famous of all is the brilliant, colorful Frank Lloyd Wright. One of his most notable early projects is the Robie House in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. 

Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Robie House for a successful young Chicago businessman and his family. Completed in 1910, the house now belongs to the University of Chicago, but it is in the process of a major renovation that is being funded by a private trust.

When I entered the low-ceilinged front lobby, I immediately noticed the carpet that covered the floor, continued up the stairs and went throughout much of the house. I picked up one corner and saw that the carpet was tufted - a modern reproduction of the original woven carpets that were manufactured in Austria in 1908 specifically for the Robie House. Just like the original, the new carpet repeated the stylized motif Wright used throughout the house - in the ceiling beams, light fixtures, and the 174 art glass windows and doors that wrapped the house in what Wright called, “light screens.”

I contacted the research department of the Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust to find out who the manufacturer was and they sent me a reprint of a 1989 article that appeared in Architectural Business magazine. It told me what I had wanted to know: the carpet had been designed and manufactured by California’s Bentley Mills, using Dupont Antron nylon and Bentley’s brand-new, ChromaTech computer color placement technology. The project had won the 1989 DuPont Antron award for historic product adaptation. Of course, the company known in 1989 as Bentley Mills is now internationally recognized as Bentley Prince Street. After reading the article, I went on the Bentley Prince Street website and discovered something that really made me smile: Valerie Venancio, the young designer who, in 1989, was Bentley Mills’ Director of Design, and who worked on the Robie House project, was none other than Valerie Ottaviano,  Bentley Prince Street Vice President of Product Design, (who, coincidentally, was also at NeoCon in Chicago the same time I was.)

I asked Valerie to talk about the process of designing carpet for a beloved architectural icon.

BR: What was the creative process for you? What were the challenges?
VO: To be able to see copies of the real working drawings and placement of the motifs was very cool; the challenges were to get the placement per the original direction on an entirely brand new kind of technology.

BR: What was the new technology?
Frank Lloyd Wright Robie HouseVO: It was an injection dyeing machine that used air pressure to deliver a full ten colors all the way to the bottom of the carpet substrate, versus traditional screen printing which colored only a small portion of the depth.

With the Robie House wanting a plusher look, it was very important to them that the technology replicate a true woven look that would last.

The machine was manufactured in Germany, and the only other one running in the world was in Egypt. Ralph Mishkin, one of the founders of Bentley Mills, travelled there to see it and bought the first one to be used in the U.S. It was really state-of-the-art

BR: Was FLW's carpet installed wall-to-wall? Did you find anything out about FLW's feelings about carpet and soft floor covering?
VO: At the time I did as much research as I could, and we had an entire team on this project. The motifs are very specific in placement, so the production arm of our manufacturing team was just as important to the success of the project as I was with what I was recreating on the disc. Let's just say there was a lot of math involved!

BR: What was most personally satisfying for you?
VO: To be part of recreating history. Remember this was before shows like History Detectives and Antiques Roadshow!

BR: Any other historical reproductions for you?
VO: No, that period was followed by the wonderful dot com craze, so I moved from projects embracing heritage to those embracing portals to the internet. Believe me, at that time I thought, “portals to the internet?" - is that statement in English?

BR: It still looks great - are you surprised?
VO: No not at all. Bentley has other projects that we still win awards for on their “sustainable" aspects that have been down even longer. Product life is an unsung element of sustainability! We need to celebrate that factor - it’s way more sustainable to specify something that will last a long time versus worrying solely about the percentage of recycled content.

Thank you, Valerie – I really enjoyed seeing your beautiful work in that wonderful historical setting – it is a perfect example of the creativity and innovation that has always been integral to the carpet industry


Credit for images above: Collection of Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust. Photographer: Tim Long.

Click here for a link to the 1989 article titled The Robie House... Wow!

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Recycle, Recover, Reuse Carpet: Werner Braun

Recycle, recover, reuse by Carpet and Rug Institute's Werner Braun

Werner Braun: Recycle, Recover, Reuse, or “Green is the New Black” for carpet

Werner Braun continues his series of columns in Dalton’s Daily Citizen-News with an article on a subject about which the carpet industry has significant reason for pride: its accomplishments in environmental responsibility. The article, published June 18, 2010, is titled "Recycle, recover, reuse."

CRI’s most recent Sustainability Report showed that in the five years between 2003 and 2008, the carpet industry scaled back its energy use and incorporated sustainable manufacturing processes to a remarkable extent. Furthermore, the industry made great strides in finding ways to recycle materials throughout the manufacturing process. The article points out that:

“The industry has already found numerous creative uses for carpet by-products, such as carpet trim and yarn scraps, to avoid the use of local landfills. Fiber and yarn that cannot be reused in manufacturing is recovered for use in other products, including excess carpet which is cut into rugs and mats and sold for other uses.

Waste carpet trimmings, backing and yarn are often sold to recycling plants and processed into such items as carpet cushion and furniture battings and cushions. Additional carpet waste is used for reinforcing filler for concrete, fence posts, road underlayment, plastic lumber and automotive parts.

Then there is polyethylene packaging, which is used to wrap carpet yarn spools and other raw materials. It is recycled into plastic pellets and sold to extruders of film, plastic wrap or plastic trash bags, or it is used in molded items.

Other materials used in the manufacturing process, such as cardboard, paper, aluminum, wooden pallets, yarn cones, roll cores, liquid containers, raw material packaging and scrap metal, are either reused or recycled.”

Material that is recycled during the manufacturing process is called “post-industrial”. Products and materials that are recovered from consumers and recycled is called, fittingly enough, “post-consumer”. The column mentions how today, more and more carpet is being collected after it has served its useful purpose, but before it goes to the landfill. Thus diverted, it is being put to good use in other products.

Carpet manufacturers are voluntarily addressing this problem through a number of ways: recycling old carpet materials back into carpet production, recycling old carpet into alternative uses such as building materials and auto parts, or by refurbishing old carpet into new carpet tiles. Several businesses are even reclaiming their old carpet so it can be reused or recycled.

Many of our member companies also have programs to deal with post-consumer carpet. Because collecting, sorting and transporting used carpet is such a huge challenge, the tasks are being addressed by carpet and fiber companies and individual entrepreneurs. Several companies have collection sites in place and are developing means to separate carpet components and recover polymers.

The industry is working towards recycling fiber back into fiber and turning Nylon 6 into new fiber. Some companies are refurbishing used carpet modules. Currently, billions of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic beverage bottles each year are used to make polyester carpet fibers.”

Finally, the article notes that one CRI committee developed an identification system of carpet materials that makes the sorting of fiber and backing compounds easier and more efficient in the future. Many CRI member companies and entrepreneurs around the country are currently using this identification system, called the Carpet Component Identification Code (CCIC).

Thank you, Werner, for pointing out how, with leadership from the carpet industry, “We are taking action today so we can take comfort in tomorrow.”


Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Cash For Caulkers, Carpet For Energy-Saving: Homeowners Benefit

Cash For Caulkers (Homestar Bill) is Back

Cash for Caulkers" Set to Give Environmentally-Responsible Homeowners a Break: Carpet's Energy-Saving Benefits Contribute to Tax Credit for Homeowners. Could Save Carpet Industry Jobs in the Bargain.

If you have been thinking about putting in a more efficient heat pump or adding another layer of insulation, now could be the time to do it, if legislation establishing a new federal program that gives homeowners tax credits for making energy-efficient home improvements passes . The legislation, called the Home Star program, has passed the U.S. House of Representatives and similar bills are pending in the Senate. The program is supported by President Obama and has been playfully called "Cash for Caulkers" in homage to Obama's earlier "Cash for Clunkers" auto industry stimulus.

Carpet is a natural fit for the Home Star program, as it has long been recognized as the only floor covering to measurably improve the R value (thermal resistance) of floors. The R-value measures how much a material resists the movement of heat through a ceiling, wall, or floor in a building. The higher the number, the more effective the insulation. Recent research conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology, as well as independent scientific studies, have demonstrated that carpet increases the R-value, or insulation level, of the carpeted area, compared to other flooring materials.

"Under the Home Star bill, carpet would help homeowners qualify for the highest-level "Gold Star" $3000 tax credit reserved for renovations that result in an overall 20 percent energy savings," said Carpet and Rug Institute Vice-President Frank Hurd.

For the carpet industry, “Cash for Caulkers” could give a sorely-needed boost to sales that might enable manufacturers to hire (or rehire) new or laid-off workers. In light of that, the Carpet and Rug Institute, on behalf of the entire industry, sent a letter of support to leaders in the Senate, urging them to pass the legislation. The letter reads, in part:

“By providing significant and immediate rebates for home energy-efficiency retrofits, the Home Star program would spur much-needed consumer demand for energy-efficient products and building materials and quickly create jobs in the manufacturing and distribution of these products. Carpet has an R value as high as 2.4 and would reduce the energy consumption in the home

American manufacturers are committed to producing more energy-efficient consumer products for residential use. With more than half of the 86 million single-family homes throughout the United States constructed before modern codes even existed, the vast majority of U.S. homes are not well insulated, have outdated heating and cooling systems, have inefficient windows and doors and are great candidates for energy-efficiency upgrades.

CRI believes that S. 3434 will improve the energy efficiency of American homes while increasing employment in the U.S. home construction, renovation and manufacturing industries. The carpet industry, however, can recover quickly as it operates with very low inventory levels and as such the recovery will significantly increase jobs downstream quickly. We urge you to support quick action on this important initiative and include carpet.


Werner H. Braun                                      Ralph J. Boe
President                                                  Chairman”

Thank you, Werner and Ralph, for taking this important step.


Note: Here is a link to the letter supporting S. 3434 sent to leaders of the Senate.

Image Credit: The image above comes from Cash For Caulkers (Homestar Bill) is Back on The Moonworks Home Improvement Blog.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Carpet Industry, Extended Producer Responsibility, CRI Legislative Update

Carpet and Rug Institute Legislative Update

Legislative Update – Extended Producer Responsibility and the Carpet Industry

One of the Carpet and Rug Institute’s most important functions is to monitor potentially harmful legislation at the state, federal, and international level. Jennifer Mendez, CRI’s Director of Government Affairs, is tasked with monitoring activity at the state level. Here's an update, with major focus on Extended Producer Responsibility in the Carpet Industry.

I got a glimpse of Jenn’s world at the June 1st, 2010 Government Relations Committee meeting, when she presented a spread sheet of proposed legislation from state legislatures all over the U.S. The scope was staggering – 99 pieces of legislation from 25 separate states. Bills were categorized as beneficial or adverse, and either direct or indirect effect on the carpet industry.

California and New York top the list with 17 bills each. Tiny Rhode Island comes next, with nine. Hawaii, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Vermont have six apiece; Illinois, four; Maryland, three, and all the rest either one or two.

BR: Jennifer, what kinds of legislation are you following?

JM: Seventy percent of what I’m tracking is EPR – Extended Producer Responsibility legislation, where manufacturers are held responsible for ensuring that the ultimate disposal of the products they make happens in an environmentally-responsible way. (Also see Earth Day, Carpet Recycling and California.) Except for California, no state is taking direct aim at carpet, but CRI’s position is that if a state will regulate one industry in a specific way, they will eventually get around to the other industries.

BR: How do you monitor so many pieces of legislation?

JM: CRI uses a legislative tracking service that picks up on certain keywords – the service searches the internet and presents the results every morning. On a busy day, I will get as many as 200 “pings” a day, bringing items to my attention. I sift through all of it to see if it’s relevant, and if it is, whether it’s potentially adverse or beneficial. The service tracks the bills I tell it to track, and brings up new bills I may not have been familiar with.

It’s an ongoing process – some legislatures, like California and New York – never go out of session.

Thanks, Jennifer!

Here is a link to entire Government Issues Committee legislative tracking document. Let me know if you have any questions.


Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Carpet's NSF-140 Better Than Green Building For Indoor Air Quality

Stop and Smell the VOCs: How to Design for Healthy Buildings

Environmental Expert: Green Building Not the Same as Healthy Building. Carpet industry’s NSF-140 Sustainability standard deals with environment and health

At the recent NeoCon World Trade Fair in Chicago, I attended a seminar titled, “Stop and Smell the VOCs: How to Design for Healthy Buildings”. It was presented by Henning Bloech, executive director of GREENGUARD Environmental Institute in Marietta, Georgia.

The introduction to the seminar read, “More than 80 million people suffer from debilitating asthma, allergies, respiratory disease and other ailments attributable to indoor chemical exposure. While sustainable design mandates good indoor air quality, most “green design” programs offer only rudimentary guidance.”

Henning’s point was this – that a green building is not necessarily a healthy building. Current systems of designing green buildings (the U.S Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED, program being the most prominent), depend too much on filling out a checklist of requirements, and do not focus enough on the health of the intended inhabitants.

“We must look at a building as a holistic system – at its core is how the building will affect the occupants – that kind of thinking has gotten lost. We must recognize that, even if you choose a product with recycled content, if it’s full of unhealthy pollutants, it’s not necessarily a good choice,” he said.

As an example, Henning spoke about a case he was involved in where the residents of one of the first LEED for Residences Gold-certified houses became ill within weeks of occupying their new home. Indoor air quality measurements immediately showed a high chemical load in the air. The culprit? A foam spray-in insulation that was not a low-emitting product. It certainly wasn’t the carpet, as the home had very little carpet - even as area rugs. LEED for Residences actually gives a point credit to homes that have no installed carpet – a fact the carpet industry strongly objects to and disagrees with.

Henning told the designers in the audience to keep the health of their buildings’ occupants, “topmost in your minds.” He said LEED was “A toolbox; not the end-all of green buildings, and he urged designers to look, “beyond the checklist.” He added that GreenGuard recommends clearance testing for the health of Indoor Air Quality prior to a new building being occupied.

Henning praised the carpet industry for being at the forefront of Indoor Air Quality testing. The carpet industry’s ANSI/NSF 140 Carpet Sustainability Assessment standard looks at sustainability from what Henning calls “the triple bottom line” of people, products, and processes, and it includes health issues as well, in that, for a carpet to be certified under the standard, it must first pass the Green Label Plus standard for Indoor Air Quality.

Thank you, Henning, for helping people understand this complex subject.


Friday, July 9, 2010

CRI's Jeff Carrier Travels To China, Meets Chinese Carpet Industry Association

CRI's Jeff Carrier Travels To China, Discusses Green Label Plus

On the Road to Shanghai: Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI)'s Jeff Carrier Travels to China Where Green Label Plus Gains Influence in the Chinese Carpet Industry

In June, CRI Sustainability and IAQ Program Manager Jeff Carrier and Vice-President Frank Hurd traveled to China to meet with representatives of the Chinese Carpet Industry Association (CCIA), at the association’s headquarters in Tian Jian, near Beijing. The trip, according to Hurd, was designed to strengthen CRI’s current relationships with CCIA and its members, specifically regarding the use of the Green Label Plus standard for indoor air quality testing. China is the largest user of GLP outside of the U.S., with 21 mills participating.

Here are some of Jeff’s notes from his trip to China:

“We spent the first couple of days in Shanghai visiting the World Expo 2010. Carpet and rugs were a prominent feature in the history and current economies of many countries throughout the world. It really gave a great sense of the history involved and reminded me just how diverse the universe of carpets and rugs is.

Chinese artisans at the expo demonstrating the art of creating a hand woven rug

One of the artisans at the expo demonstrating the art of creating a hand woven rug.

ancient chinese loom

An ancient loom on display at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai. Frank and I were able to visit the expo and saw that carpet and rugs figure prominently into the history and economy of many countries around the world.

Also went to some ancient tourist village. It was hot but charming, and we walked all day in a crowded marketplace full of shops and booths. That night we took a train to Tian Jian (near Beijing, the location of the Chinese Carpet Industry Association offices). Meetings, presentation on Green Label Plus (GLP), NSF-140, CARE, and technical issues followed by a dinner.

Next morning, June 19th , Frank and I split up. He went to Beijing with Madame Zhang (CCIA President) and I went to Xining in the Qinghai province. Xining hosts the annual Qinghai Tibetan World Carpet Exhibition. Hand and Machine Woven rug producers from China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Nepal, and Tibet display their rugs and conduct business. The night we arrived, I had dinner with the Secretary General of the Chinese Tibetan Carpet Association. The next morning was the opening ceremony. I was interviewed by about four Chinese news channels. I was given the royal treatment the whole time. GLP was prominent at the exhibition. [See photo above: Green Label Plus was featured prominently at the Qinghai Tibetan Carpet Exposition. I gave about four interviews for Chinese television about my impressions of the expo.] Opening banquet that night.

Jeff Carrier examines incredible chinese rug
Examining one of the incredible rugs on display at the Qinghai Tibetan Carpets International Exposition

The next day I visited the Exhibition a little more and then went to a meeting with the Vice Governor of the Province. With the representatives of the other nations’ carpet and rug industry and export/import associations, we discussed ideas on how to improve the Exhibition and also the health of the hand woven rug industry. That afternoon I took a nap and slept. Went to the awards banquet that night (in Chinese, no idea who won what). Next day, we took a sightseeing trip to Heavenly Lake. This was my trip up and down a mountain on what I called “The Highway of Certain Death”. I don’t know how we survived. The next morning I had one more meeting with the Chinese Tibetan Carpet Association and then flew to Shanghai.

The next day, we went on some walking tours around Shanghai and went to the Jade Buddha Temple. It was really interesting. The tea tasting room was a lot of fun. The girl there spoke excellent English and really gave a good presentation. That night we took a river boat trip to see the skyline. That was beautiful.

Next morning started the long journey back.

Overall impression, CRI members concentrate on the US market but no industry is an island. Increasingly, the interests of our membership are expanding outside U.S. borders and there is a huge presence of makers and buyers out there that we need to know for the benefit of our members. This trip helped introduce us to a large contingent of those peers.”

Thanks, Jeff – this was fascinating – glad you are back safe and sound!!!


Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Sears Carpet Cleaning Ad Supports CRI Seal of Approval

Sears Carpet Cleaning Ad Supports CRI Seal of Approval

Sears Blue Crew Supports Seal of Approval in Carpet Cleaning Advertising

Another great TV commercial from a Carpet and Rug Institute Seal of Approval-certified company has hit the airwaves – this time from Sears! The new Sears Blue Crew Carpet Cleaning ad actually mentions the company’s Platinum rating under the SOA program. It also takes a humorous look at a family struggling with dirty carpet (walking on stilts, using throw pillows as stepping stones) – that is, of course, until Sears comes in to save the day!

We love it!

Watch it here. [Subscribers, click on this link to view the Sears Blue Team "Minefield" carpet cleaning clip on YouTube.] It's one minute long.

Note: if you're having trouble with the video file, try this link instead. (Windows Media Video 3.20MB)

This Sears Carpet Cleaning advertising campaign includes a new print ad from Sears - see above - that reinforces the Seal of Approval message with the SOA logo front and center!

Thanks to Sears – a great SOA Participant!

If you haven't already, you might enjoy a related blog post - titled Stanley Steemer Cleans Carpet: "I Coulda Saved This One!"   It's another clever TV commercial that reinforces the Seal of Approval message that proper carpet care keeps carpet in use longer and out of the landfill.


Thursday, July 1, 2010

CRI Carpet Cleaning & Maintenance Brochure Includes Case Studies

Diary of a Carpet Hero

New Seal of Approval Brochure Includes Carpet Cleaning & Maintenance Upside and Downside Case Studies!

Confessions of a Carpet Killer… Diary of a Carpet Hero

The upside and the downside of carpet cleaning and maintenance is laid out in a new brochure promoting the Carpet and Rug Institute’s Seal of Approval testing and certification program for carpet cleaning products and equipment. The brochure’s clever, back-to-front design seems to ask readers which they’d rather hear first – the good news or the bad? On first side of the brochure, under a headline that reads, “Confessions of a Carpet Killer”, it says, “I have destroyed something beautiful. I took the life of my carpet…I ruined it years before its time…if only I’d seen the error of my ways and looked for the Carpet and Rug Institute’s Seal of Approval. Now it’s too late.”

The other side, called “Diary of a Carpet Hero”, begins, “My carpet and I have had a long and happy relationship. I take care of it, and it takes care of me.”

Confessions of a Carpet KillerDirected primarily at facilities managers, the brochure’s essential point is that improper carpet care costs money, while a well-planned carpet maintenance plan that includes Seal of Approval chemicals, equipment, and Service Providers will actually save money in the long run by making carpet look better longer and not have to be replaced as often. Each side is supported with real-world case studies that include dollar amounts for how much the right or wrong decisions either cost or saved the building owners. For example:

“Law Offices Handed a Difficult Verdict – In Chicago, a law firm made an investment in 6,000 square yards of cut and loop carpet. Not knowing about proper maintenance and cleaning supplies, the firm saw evidence of heavy staining after just a year. Switching to a new maintenance program recovered some of the carpet. But some was judged to be ruined. Total money lost: $38,000

At a Savannah Hotel, Carpet Enjoys an Extended Stay – At a five-star hotel in Georgia, 6,000 square yards of carpet was looking worn after just two years, and a significant investment was in jeopardy. Thanks to a new maintenance program, the carpet’s look was quickly restored. And the CRI Seal of Approval became a permanent resident. Total money saved: $424,000

Special thanks to Lew Migliore of LGM and Associates for helping us with the information for the case studies.

Here’s a video of CRI’s new “two brochures in one”!

[Subscribers, click on this link for the YouTube CRI Confessions Brochure video.  If you cannot view the YouTube video, click on this link to the CRI website for a Windows Media Video 20.33 MB.]

The brochure may be ordered from the Carpet and Rug Institute by clicking on this link. Prices are $10 for a sample pack of 25 or $150 for a case of 350.

~ Bethany
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